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Science News: 2022 Nat. Energy, Nontoxic Production of Halide Perovskites using Ethanol-Based Green Solution Processing

  In the mass production of perovskite solar cells, solution processing is used. In general solution processing, non-toxic or less toxic solvents are often used. However, halide perovskites have the problem of not being completely soluble in most non-toxic solutions. To solve this problem, Nat. Energy published a study of Sang Il Seok, Yonghui Lee and others at the National Institute of Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) in South Korea in 2022. Here, the research team used perovskite precursor solutions soluble in ethanol-based solvent to produce the deposition of dense and uniform α-formamidinium lead triiodide (α-FAPbI3) films. This method avoids an antisolvent dripping step.

  The results of the study found:

  1. The combination of Lewis bases, such as dimethylacetamide (or dimethylsulfoxide), and an alkylammonium chlorides (RNH3Cl) in ethanol results in stable dissolution of FAPbI3.
  2. During spin coating and high-temperature annealing, RNH3Cl added to the FAPbI3 precursor solution is removed via iodoplumbate complexes, such as PbI2·RNH2 and PbI2·HCl, coordinated with dimethylacetamide (or dimethylsulfoxide).
  3. By combining several types of RNH3Cl, very dense and uniform α-FAPbI3 perovskite films with high crystallinity can be formed.
  4. The power conversion efficiency of 24.3% is obtained using TiO2 electrode, and 25.1% was obtained using SnO2 electrode.
Proposed chemical interaction of FAPbI3 and solvent (EtOH-DMA) molecules

Proposed chemical interaction of FAPbI3 and solvent (EtOH-DMA) molecules.

FT-IR spectra of DMA and solutions

FT-IR spectra of DMA and solutions.

IV curve EQE and 700 PCE test

IV curve, EQE and 700 (h) PCE test.

Keywords: halide perovskite, solar cell, green solution, solar simulator, sun simulator

Article link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-022-01086-7

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Ethanol-based green-solution processing of α-formamidinium

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