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Class AAA Small Area Solar Simulator

  HCPS-100 is a small illumination area type solar simulator with class AAA performances. HCPS-100 is designed for many advancing solar cell researches which needs small illumination area, like perovskite solar cells.
HCPS-100 is composed with a 100 W Xe lamp light source with the light homogenizer and the high-performance power supply. With advanced optical optimization, HCPS-100 has very high performance with compact system size. The illumination area can be larger than ≥ 40 mm x 40 mm. The irradiance spectrum and irradiance stability with time are class A according to ASTM, IEC, and JIS several different international standards evaluations.

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At the same time, the irradiance space un-uniformity can also be better than class A (≤2 %) within 400 mm 2. The compact system design makes HCPS-100 suitable for many novel energy research fields, such as perovskite solar cells, organic solar cells, photocatalyst, photosynthesis, or photochromic et al.

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Class A irradiance spectral match

  Irradiance spectrum match is one of the key factors of solar simulators. To better evaluate the spectrum performance of a solar simulator, the IEC 60904-9 (2007) standard divided the solar spectrum into different segments with 100nm or 200nm bandwidth from 400nm to 1100 nm. However, with the development of high-efficiency solar cell technologies, the irradiance spectral match of the solar simulator is becoming necessary. 

      On 2020, IEC released latest solar simulator evaluation standard IEC 60904-9:2020 which evaluate the irradiance spectrum of the solar simulator with broader wavelength range (300nm to 1200nm) and narrower band segments. The details of the evaluation method, please see our “Solar Simulator- Basic Knowledge and Working Principles” and the section “What is AAA solar simulator”. The Class A spectral match requires the deviation of each wavelength bands is within 0.75 to 1.25 both for the old and latest IEC 60904-9 standards. The spectral match evaluations of HCPS-100 by old IEC 60904-9:2007 (Old, easier) or latest IEC 60904-9:2020 (Latest, much difficult) are both reached Class A from 300 nm to 1200 nm. It is contributed by Enlitech’s advanced AM 1.5G filter technology which makes the irradiance spectrum and sustainability of HCPS-100 solar simulator be much better other brand solar simulators in the same level size.

HCPS-100 Class AAA Small Area Solar Simulator 圖片0001

Figure 1. The irradiance spectrum of HCPS-100 solar simulator.


HCPS-100 Class AAA Small Area Solar Simulator figure02

Figure 2. The spectral match evaluation of HCPS-100 solar simulator with the old IEC 60904-9:2007.

The wavelength range is from 400 nm to 1100 nm and divided into 6 bands. The class A classification requires the evaluation values at each wavelength band are all within 0.75 to 1.25 deviation. The results show that all of band evaluation are A or A+ for HCPS-100 solar simulator.


HCPS-100 Class AAA Small Area Solar Simulator figure03 1

Figure 3 The spectral match evaluation of HCPS-100 solar simulator with the latest IEC 60904-9:2020.

The wavelength range is from 300 nm to 1200 nm and divided into 6 bands. It covers much more wavelength range and make it be more difficult to get good classification. Evan that, HCPS-100 still has outstanding spectral match performance which is much better than class A level. It proofs that the vital spectral performance of HCPS-100 solar simulator is extra ordinary great not constrained by it’s compact size design.


Class A spatial irradiance uniformity

The spatial irradiance uniformity is the second index for the solar simulator classification. It is most difficult in all the parameters. The spatial irradiance uniformity hot spot will greatly induce the power conversion efficiency testing result error and mis-certified the binning of the solar cells. HCPS-100 uses Enlitech’s advanced homogenizer technology which can convert the un-regular light beam spot into the uniform spatial beam illumination area and reduce the irradiance hot spot distributions. The spatial irradiance uniformity of HCPS-100 solar simulator can achieve IEC, ASTM, and JIS standards’ class A level, which is ≦ 2% within 400 mm2. More details, please see our technical article: “Solar Simulator- Basic Knowledge and Working Principles” and the section “What is AAA solar simulator”. The illumination area size of HCPS-100 solar simulator is pretty suitable for many novel solar cell research, most of which are beginning from small active area such as 2mm x 2 mm.
Class A spatial Uniformity of HCPS-100 solar simulator.

Figure 4 Class A spatial Uniformity of HCPS-100 solar simulator.

It shows the one-sun equivalent irradiance spatial distribution achieving class A (<2%) within 400 mm2 area.

Class A irradiance temporal stability

  The third important parameter is the irradiance temporal stability with time. The temporal stability of the solar simulator output illumination directly affects the current-voltage IV tracing curve of solar cell under testing. The un-stable light illumination on the device under test will cause the accuracy of the conversion efficiency value of the solar cell.

    The HCPS-100 solar simulator adapts high-stability Xe lamp power supply system, which can keep Xe lamp irradiance output with high temporal stability without needing optical feedback control system.

he short-term irradiance temporal instability of HCPS-100 solar simulator

Figure 5 The short-term irradiance temporal instability of HCPS-100 solar simulator.

The red and blue lines show lower and upper limit boundary of Class A classification. The result shows that HCPS-100 achieves class A requirement.

Max irradiance intensity ≥ 1400 W/m2 (1.4 suns)

With highly efficient optical design and components, the maximum output AM1.5G irradiance of HCPS solar simulator can be over 1400 W/m2 (> 1.4 sun). It is much higher than other compact size solar simulators, which is usually smaller than 1.2 sun (1200 W/m2).

According to IEC and ASTM standard, the characterization testing of PV and solar cells should be proceeded at STC (Standard Testing Conditions) conditions. The STC conditions are AM1.5G spectrum, 1000 W/m2 (1sun), and 25 degree C.

In general, the time of replacing the lamp of the solar simulator is happened in the case that the output irradiance intensity of the solar simulator is less than one sun (1000 W/m2). It makes the characterizing experiment of the solar cell can not be proceeded under STC conditions. At this moment, the lamp is still emitting photons and irradiance, but cannot be 1000 W/m2. The higher maximum output irradiance makes HCPS-100 solar simulator has more operating time period. It makes HCPS-100 has more Cost-Performance value than other compact size solar simulator.

BrandEnlitechN BrandY BrandS BrandS BrandS BrandH Brand
Effective Illuminance Area40*40 mm38*38 mm50*50 mm40*40 mm50*50 mm50*50 mm50*50 mm
Spectral MatchAAAAAAB, 0.60-1.40
Spatial UniformityA (20*20 mm)BAAAAC, <± 10%
Illuminance StabilityABAAAAA
Power ConsumptionGood (100W)Good (100W)Poor (180W)Poor (150W)150W300W300W
Max. Illuminance1.4 SUN1.0 SUN1.0 SUN1.0 SUN (±30%)1.0 SUN2.0 SUN1.0 SUN
Variable Attenuator0.2-1.4 SUNN/A0.1-1 SUN0.1-2 SUNN/A
Variable Aperture15~100%N/A10~100%10~100%N/A
Beam DirectionUp/Down/Right/Left AdjustableDownward only
(Beam turning accessories need to be purchased additionally)
Downward onlyUp/Down/Right/Left AdjustableDown/HorizontalDown/HorizontalUp/Down/Right/Left Adjustable
Device ConfigurationAll in oneExternal power supply requiredExternal power supply requiredAll in oneExternal power supply requiredExternal power supply requiredExternal power supply required
Manual ShutterY(Optional Motorized shutter)Y(Optional Motorized shutter)YY(Optional Motorized shutter)Y
Working Distance(mm)100mm150-180mm(6~8 in)350±15mm380±15mmN/A
Stability/Ripple/Regulation0.03% line requlation0.05%/<1%/0.02% current variation for 5V line charge0.05%/<1%/0.02% current variation for 5V line chargeN/A
AM 1.5GYYNeed to be purchased additionallyNeed to be purchased additionallyY
PriceContact usHighHighHighHighHighHigh

System Design

Adjustable output irradiance function

HCPS-100 solar simulator can use AM1.5G filter to generate irradiance over 1 sun intensity. The light intensity can be adjusted by built-in mechanical iris. Through adjusting the opening of mechanical iris, the irradiance can be adjusted to AM1.5G 1 sun (1000 W/m2).
HCPS-100 Class AAA Small Area Solar Simulator 細節02 1

User also can choose the optical plate and the optical rod module to change the height and the distance between HCPS-100 and the testing plane. The changing distance also changes the light intensity easily. These make HCPS-100 can be applied to many advanced research fields.

HCPS-100 Class AAA Small Area Solar Simulator 圖片006

Figure 6 HCPS-100 solar simulator can easily be mounted on the optical rod module and optical plate. 

(Optical rod and plate sold separately)

Manual optical shutter

HCPS-100 solar simulator has a built-in optical shutter. It can be used to turn ON or OFF of HCPS-100 irradiance output. 

HCPS-100 Class AAA Small Area Solar Simulator HCPS細節01 1

Easy installation and maintenance

Unlike other compact size solar simulators, they must be screwed on the optical breadboard or other plate to stand-up for solid installation due to the mechanical mass center of the whole system is not balanced. HCPS-100 solar simulator can solidly stand on any flat table due to its balanced mechanical design. HCPS-100 solar simulator also provides the screw trench for M6 screw to fix on arbitrary plane for user’s experimental purpose. It greatly provides more flexibility for users to utilizing HCPS-100 solar simulator to their application field. The maintenance of HCPS-100 is also simple. The Xe lamp is factory-built the optical reflector type. Therefore, users do not need to adjust the lamp position between the optical reflector when replacing the lamp.
  • 4 flexible illumination directions: up, down, left, and right directions
  • Reference Cells for irradiance calibration A reference cell is an standard unit which is usually used to calibrated the irradiance intensity of solar simulators to 1 sun (1000 W/m2). Enlitech provide most plenty different optical window types of reference cells which are all packaged with WPVS type. The calibration of these reference standard cells are traced to NREL and to SI units. Enlitech is accredited through MRA and conformance with ISO 17025:2017 calibration laboratory standard, which can provide users the most trustable testing results.
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Specification and Options

Beam size≥ 40 mm x 40 mm square beam shape.
Spectral Match ClassificationClass A- IEC 60904-9 (2007)
Class A- IEC 60904-9 (2020)
Class A- ASTM E927-10 (2015)

Temporal InstabilityClass A- IEC 60904-9 (2007)
Class A- IEC 60904-9 (2020)
Class A- ASTM E927-10 (2015)-

Beam Non-uniformity
Class A- IEC 60904-9 (2007)
Class A- IEC 60904-9 (2020)
Class A- ASTM E927-10 (2015)
Within 400 mm2

Collimation Angle≦ 6 °
Nominal Working Distance100 mm or 178 mm (Adjustable)
Lamp Power100 W Xe Lamp
Lamp Lifetime≥ 1000 hrBased on lamp manufacturer’s report
Output illumination directionsUp, Down, Left, Right
Typical irradiance intensity1000 W/m2(1 sun)
Maximum irradiance intensity≥ 1400 W/m2 (1.4 suns); adjustable by mechanical iris control manually.
Optical shutterMechanical, manual optical shutter
Input Power100-240 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 5 Amp
Cooling systemActive fan cooling system
Overheating ProtectionAuto power-off protection

Optical breadboard plates (Al)
Height adjustment clamp and rodThe clamp and rod can fix the optical breadboard plate and adjust the height of HCPS-100 on the plate.
Stage and fixturesEnlitech can help user to design and make any or customized stages and test fixtures. “Contact Us”
AM0 filter
Color filtersEnlitech can provide many different wavelength band filters.
Additional filter mount
IV testing softwareIVS-KA6000 Capable with controlling Keithley or Keysight SMU
Spare Xe lamp100 W Xe Lamp

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